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Psammophis longifrons BOULENGER, 1896

Identification Supralabials: 8, of which 4-5 touching the eye. 1 preocular, 2 postoculars. Scalerows middorsal: 17. Anal divided. Colour uniformly pale brown, scales black edged, forming a reticulated pattern.
"Males of P. longifrons have very short (up to four sub-caudal scales) and thin genitalia without ornamentation"(Vyas and Patel, 2013, see illustration 2 in this paper).
Common Names Long Sand Racer, Stocky Sand Snake, Stout Sand Snake
Size The largest specimen Vyas and Patel (2013) collected, was a male of 113,5 cm.
Synonym Psammophis longifrons BOULENGER 1896: 165
Psammophis longifrons — SMITH 1943: 365
Psammophis longifrons — DAS 1996: 58
Psammophis longifrons — MURTHY 2010 
Distribution India 

Map according to Vyas and Patel, 2013

R Nande, R Deshmukh, 2007.  Snakes of Amravati District including Melghat, Maharashtra, with important records of the Indian egg eater, Montane trinket snake and Indian smooth snake.  Zoos' Print Journal, 22 (12): 2920-2924:


 

Breeding A wild female was held in observation by Patel (Vyas and  Patel 2013) and laid 8 eggs ((~2.1 × × 4.0 cm) that unfortunately all spoiled after a while, though they were fertilized. 'This shows that the summer season (April to May) is most probably the egg laying season for this species.' (Vyas and Patel, 2013).
Habitat According to Vyas and Patel (2013) this snake is found in a wide variety of habitats, from urban human habitats to agricultural fields, Sal forest, dry deciduous forest to dry arid areas with coastal scrubs and saline lends in three western states of India. These areas encompass about 2000 km2 and fall under six bio-geographical zones; 4B, semi-arid-Gujarat Rajputana; 5A, Western
Ghats-Malalabar plains; 5B, Western Ghats-mountains; 6A, Deccan Peninsula-Central Highlands; 6B, Deccan Peninsula-Chota-Nagpur; 6D, Deccan Peninsula-Central Plateau (Vyas and Patel, 2013).
Food All specimens Vyas and Patel held shortly in captivity, accepted lizards and frogs as food.
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • D'Abreu, E.A. 1913. Occurrence of the Snake (Psammophis longifrons) at Nagpur. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 634 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Vyas, Raju 1987. Collection of a stout sand snake - Psammophis longifrons Hamadryad 12 (2): 7-8
  • Bogert C. M. (1940), “Herpetological results of the Vernay Angola expedition. Part 1. Snakes, including an arrangement of the African Colubridae,” Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 77, 1 – 1 07.
  • Boulenger G. A. (1896), Catalogue of Snakes in British Museum (Natural History ). Part III, British Museum Natural History, London.
  • Broadley D. G. (1987), “Caudal autotomy in African snakes of the genera Natriciteres Loveridge and Psammophis Boie,” J. Herpetol. Ass. Afr., 33, 18 – 19.
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  • Hoser R. T. (2012), “A division of the african genus Psammophis Boie, 1825 into 4 genera and four further subgenera (Serpentes: Psammophiinae),” Australasian J. Herpetol., 12, 26 – 31.
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  • Masroor R. (2012), A Contribution to the Herpetology of  Northern Pakistan: The Amphibians and Reptiles of MargallaHills National Park and Surrounding Regions, Soc. for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Molur S. and Walker S. (1998), Report of the Workshop “Conservation assessment and management plan for reptiles of India (BCCP-Endangered species project),” Zoo Outreach Organization, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (India), Coimbatore, India,
  • Nande R. and Deshmukh S. (2007), “Snakes of Amravati district including Melghat, Maharashtra, with important records of the Indian Egg-eater, Montane Trinket Snake and Indian Smooth Snake,” Zoos’ Print J., 22(12), 2920 – 2924.
  • Pal S. and Mirza Z. A. (2009), “Notes on the distribution and natural history of the rare and endemic, Stout Sand Snake, Psammophis longifrons Boulenger, 1896,” Cobra, 3(3), 7 – 10.
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