Psammophis indochinensis SMITH, 1943

Subspecies PAUWELS et al. (2003) state that P. c. condanarus and P. s. indochinensis can be distinguished by their microdermatoglyphic patterns which is said to be “echinate” in condanarus but “canaliculate” in indochinensis (based on F. Brandstätter’s PhD thesis of 1995).

Psammophis condanarus indochinensis SMITH 1943 is treated here as valid species. (1)

Ganesh e.a. 2017: "Smith (1943) described the Indo-Chinese population of P. condanarus as subspecies P. condanarus indochinensis based on the differences in ventral, subcaudal counts and dorsal stripe patterns. Later it was given full species status by Hughes (1999) in his review on primarily African species. Psammophis condanarus is distinct from P. indochinensis by having higher ventrals (165-179 vs. 156-173 in P. indochinensis), higher subcaudals (75-93 vs. 66-85 in P. indochinensis), dorsal pattern (vertebral stripes darker vs. vertebral stripe lighter/absent or variable), number of dark dorsal stripes (3 or 5 vs. 4 in P. indochinensis) and their different geographical distributions. It is noteworthy here that the ventral counts of the new material resemble P. indochinensis much more than P. condanarus. We provisionally consider them to represent P. condanarus, based on congruence of other morphological characters and distribution."

Common Names  
Synonym Psammophis condanarus indochinensis SMITH 1943
Psammophis condanarus indochinensis — COX et al. 1998: 56
Psammophis indochinensis — HUGHES 1999
Psammophis indochinensis — PAUWELS et al. 2003
Psammophis indochinensis — DAVID et al. 2004
Psammophis condanarus indochinensis — COTTONE & BAUER 2009
Psammophis indochinensis — SANG et al. 2009 
Distribution Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Cambodia, Vietnam

Map legend:
- Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map. (1)


  • Cottone, Amanda M. and Aaron M. Bauer 2009. Notes on sexual size dimorphism and reproduction in the Asian Sand Snake, Psammophis condanarus (Psammophiidae) Hamadryad 34 (1): 182-185
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • DAVID, Patrick; MEREL J. COX, OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS, LAWAN CHANHOME AND KUMTHORN THIRAKHUPT 2004. Book Review - When a bookreview is not sufficient to say all: an in-depth analysis of a recent book on the snakes of Thailand, with an updated checklist of the snakes of the Kingdom. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 4(1): 47-80
  • Hughes, B. 1999. Critical review of a revision of Psammophis (Linnaeus 1758) (Serpentes, Reptilia) by Frank Brandstätter. Afr. J. Herpetol. 48 (1-2): 63-70 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • S.R. Ganesh, Vivek Sharma & M. Bubesh Guptha. Records of the Indian Sand Snake Psammophis condanarus (Merrem, 1820) (Reptilia: Lamprophiidae) in southern India. In: Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 July 2017 | 9(7): 10453–10458


(1) The Reptile Database